Historians argue over which narrative is correct within their area of expertise. It has been accepted there were no nation-states during the ancient period, only kingdoms, city-states and empires. What would be considered bureaucracies (the lifeblood of a modern state) did not exist. However, the Han Chinese did develop a civil service exam and had a rudimentary bureaucratic system. One thing is clear: a certain event happened, there are the facts and how historians interpret the facts.
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